Wednesday, September 5, 2012

Asynchronous Tasks: A Celery with Django Tutorial

Some tasks are meant to be asynchronous during web development. For example, when a user posts an item, we might need to broadcast it on facebook and twitter, and send mail to followers.

One way to do this is call the appropirate post_facebook and post_twitter functions in the Django view for posting the item. But calls which involve HTTP to other sites might be slow, and during that time, the page which is rendered from the view will just be loading.

This is where asynchronous tasks come in place. These tasks do not need to done while the user waits, and it would be nice to do them asynchronously. That is what Celery allows you to do.

Celery is a python library that works nicely with Django to enable async task processing. The general concept to make everything happen is:
  1. You need tasks, that are the units of execution that need to be performed
  2. You need workers, which take tasks and execute them
  3. You need to add tasks to a queue, which lets workers know what tasks to run
  4. You need a notion of a 'queue', which is where your tasks are stored while they wait to be performed. 

Getting your message queue

Before we start working with celery, we need to have this queue in place. Celery can use a number of different queues, including rabbitmq, redis, or even the database backend. After all, the underlying function of a queue is to store tasks, and give it to workers. That said, you should not use the database based queue in production because you will be hitting it often, and that is not good. There are several protocols for the queue to communicate with workers, the most popular being AMQP---basically, your queue and your workers need to speak the same protocol to understand each other.

RabbitMQ is the industry standard. It is performant (and can be configured very much). It is written in Erlang. Your initial step is to get rabbitmq installed. It is actually available in the Ubuntu repositories as rabbitmq-server. You can find more installation help here.

You can run rabbitmq-server using invoke-rc.d, as given in the installation page. Once its running, there is a command line tool called rabbitmqctl which will help you interact with the server.

RabbitMQ has a notion of access control, which describes who is allowed to read from your queue. For that, it needs a user and a password. It also has namespaces for queues---known as a vhost---with the default being '/'. A fresh install of RabbitMQ has a user named guest with password guest. You might want to change it, and add your own. For that, you will need to use the command rabbitmqctl. Details here. You always run rabbitmqctl with sudo.
You can do this to create a new user, and give it permissions on the default vhost

$ rabbitmqctl add_user myuser mypassword
$ rabbitmqctl set_permissions -p / myuser ".*" ".*" ".*"   (NOTE: / is the vhost name) 
(you can also create a new vhost, and then assign permissions to that vhost instead of to / )

At this point, you should have rabbitmq-server running, with a new user. You can check if it is running using 'rabbitmqctl status'
If you want to learn more about other options for brokers, check out this doc.

Celery time

With a message queue in place, the next step is to get celery going
To install celery for django, you can pip install a package known as django-celery (which depends on the underlying celery library), but adds additional django specific tools. The key steps are:

1. pip install django-celery
2. add the following to

import djcelery
3. add djcelery to

4. Create the db tables using python syncdb (or south)

You can find more details here: You then need to tell celery where your broker (queue) is located, and that is done using the BROKER_URL setting, which goes in In our case above, the BROKER_URL will be:

BROKER_URL = 'amqp://myuser:mypassword@localhost:5672//' 
Note that here, we are running rabbit on the same machine as celery, and using localhost to find it. Also notice the double slash at the end...the second one is the vhost. Also, you could break this settings to BROKER_USER, BROKER_PASSWORD etc, but the above is shorter and sweeter.

Defining tasks

With infrastructure in place, the next step is to define some tasks. By convention, tasks for an app are defined in app/ Then, when you start a worker, the worker will go through all the modules that are installed, and import the tasks that are defined in the of any app that has it.

A task is a normal python function, except it is decorated as follows:

import time
from celery import task

def celery_add_tak(x, y):
    return x + y 
There are actually a lot of configurations for tasks. Ignore_result tells celery that you don't care about the results, and it does not need to keep state. Normally, you do this because the result of your task might be some update that is reflected in another state elsewhere. A full list of task configurations can be found here:

Calling your tasks

Now, we have a trivial task defined, that knows how to take some inputs and add them. Therefore, whenever you need to add two things, and this does not need to happen immediately, you can assign this task to a worker. The time.sleep here is to show you that this function can take longer amounts of time to run, and you don't want to be waiting on it in your view. We now need to call add this task to the queue as needed, with the appropriate arguments.

lets say you are in the of that app. To add a task to the queue, you do the following

from app.tasks import celery_add_task

def some_func(request, args,..):
    You do stuff here

    #then you want to add a particular relevant task, which you do as:

apply_async is one way to invoke the task. The nice thing about it is that you can have a number of other parameters that describe how this task is added. For example, if you have a task T:

    T.apply_async((arg, ), {'kwarg': value})

    T.apply_async(countdown=10)  #executes 10 seconds from now.

    T.apply_async(eta=now + timedelta(seconds=10)) #executes 10 seconds from now, specifed using eta

    T.apply_async(countdown=60, expires=120)  #executes in one minute from now, but expires after 2 minutes.

    T.apply_async(expires=now + timedelta(days=2)) #expires in 2 days, set using datetime. 
There is also a shortcut function, which calls the simplest form of apply_async more elegantly:

    T.delay(arg, kwarg=value)   #always a shortcut to .apply_async. 
What this does is give you the same semantics as calling the task directly. You can learn more about calling tasks here:

Time for fireworks

We are all set now. We just need to sit and watch the fireworks (or fix a couple things if needed). First, you will need to get the celery works going, and it is easy to do because of the djcelery app that you have in your installed apps. It gives you a command to do it:

python celery worker --loglevel=info
This command can take a number of switches. For example -c 2 changes the concurrent number of workers to 2 (default is 4). (Source

(often, you would want to run them in the background, look here: You can use the following command to find more about available commands:

python celery help 
When you start running the worker, if you see connection errors, you need to check if the rabbitmq-server is running. Then check if the user and password that are in the URL are correct in rabbitmq, and finally make sure the vhost is correct. Vhost is exactly as you defined it. For example, if you didn't add a trailing slash when you create it, then it doesn't need it in the URL.

Starting the worker should find all tasks that are defined in your installed apps, and then show you a list of all these tasks, and it starts listening.

At this point, you can navigate to the page that will trigger the view which adds the task (some_func as we defined it above). This should add the task, and you will see the worker getting the task from rabbitmq, and running it. There you have it, you now can add a bunch of asynchronous tasks to your apps.

Periodic (non-user-triggered) tasks

Some tasks are not user triggered, and need to happen on schedule. For example, you might recompute a leader board of some sort every 15 minutes. For those tasks, you need periodic tasks. In that case, what you need to do is, set a variable named CELERYBEAT_SCHEDULE which will schedule the tasks as you need them. You can use intervals or more cron like schedules. You can find more about setting them here: 

Here is an example CELERYBEAT_SCHEDULE that points to task using a timedelta schedule.

    'update_search_index_every_15min': {
        'task': 'msearch.tasks.update_index_task',
        'schedule': timedelta(seconds=900)

You then need someone to read this configuration, and then submit the jobs to the queue as the schedule comes up. The scheduler (known as celery beat) can be started by itself, as 'celery beat', but it can also be started embedded in the worker themselves, so you can do:

python celery worker -B
here the -B starts the beat, and your tasks will be added as needed.


This post looked at the key steps in getting Celery for Django to work. These include getting a message queue in place, installing and configuring celery, defining tasks, calling tasks, and starting workers with user-triggered and periodic tasks. Now go make your apps snappier.


Anonymous said...

Hi, nice post here and I have just started with django celery and I don't think I am clear enough on how it works. I have a view which calls a task and whenever the task gets called the page will not navigate away and will stay there until the task is done performing the required actions. I was assuming that once I execute the task with apply_async, the page will navigate away without having to wait, and I could later navigate to another page to poll for results. Am i having a wrong understanding here?

id said...

The task must be called with either .delay or .apply_async in order to be run asynchronously. Otherwise, it is run as a regular python function.

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